-







































: ()

: ()

1. 

2.  -

3. 

4. 

5. 

6. 

7. 

8. 

9. 

1. 

, 1.

2:

w  F = 10 ;

w  u = 0,42 /;

w  D = 150 ;

w  L = 5 .

2.  - .

2.1. 

, (1)

h - ;

h - , h.=0,98;

h...- , h..= (0,99 ¸ 0,995);

h..- , h..= (0,96 ¸ 0,98).

h = 0,9920,9820,982=0,904

, (2)

- , ;

.. - , .

, (3)

F - , ;

u - , /.

[4, .384] .


1.

, , /
5,5 4100L23 2880
411243 1445
4132S63 965
413283 720

2.2. 

u=u1u2 , (4)

u ;

u1 ;

u2 .

.

(5)

n.. , /;

n. , /.

(6)

/

u1 = 4.

u2 = 4,5.

2.3. 

(7)

(8)

n , /;

n , /;

/

/

.

< 5% (9)

(10)

ω.. , -1.

-1

-1

-1

P = Tω, (11)

P , ;

T , ͷ.

ͷ

1=u1 , (12)

2=1u2 , (13)

1 , ͷ;

2 , ͷ.

=464∙0,99∙0,98∙0,98=174,95 ͷ

=174,954,5∙0,99∙0,98∙0,98=748,54 ͷ

2.

, × n, /

w, -1

u
425063 46 965 101
, 174,95 241,25 25,25 4
748,54 53,61 5,61 4,5

: - . . . , .

3.  ר

3.1. 

3.1.1.

3.2 [4,.50] : 45 . 1=207, 2=195.

:

[σ]= (1,8 +67)×HL , (14)

[σ]- , /2;

HL , HL =1;

.

[σ.]1=1,8 207+67= 439,6 /2

[σ.]2=1,8 195+67= 418 /2

[σ]=418 /2.

:

[σF]= 1,03 ×FL , (15)

[σF] - , /2;

KFL , KFL=1;

[σ F]1=1,03207 = 213,21 /2

[σ F]2=1,03195 = 200,85 /2

3.1.2.

, (16)

Kβ , Kβ = 1;

Ka : Ka=43;

ψa , , ψa=0,2.0,25, ψa= 0,2;

6636-69 aω=150 .

3.1.3.

(17)

(18)

- , ;

- , .


3.1.4.

, (19)

m , ;

m , m = 5,8;

d2 , .

(20)

9563-60 m = 1,5 .

3.1.5.

, (21)

βmin 10.

(22)

zΣ ;

z1,z2 ;

β .

3.1.6.

(23)

z2=196 39= 157

3.1.7. .

(24)

Δu=(|u-u|/u)100% <4% , (25)

u ;

u , u=4;

Du , %.

Du=(|4,03-4|)/4100%=0,75% <4%


3.1.8. .

(26)

3.1.9.

d1=m×z1/cosb, (27)

d2=m×z2/cosb,

d1 , ;

d2 , .

d1=1,5×39/cos11,48=59,7

d2=1,5×157/cos11,48=240,3 .

da1=d1+2×m, (28)

da2=d2+2×m,

da1 , ;

da2 , .

da1=59,7+2×1,5= 62,7

da2=240,3+2×1,5= 243,3


df1= d1-2,5×m, (29)

df2= d2-2,5×m,

df1 , ;

df2 , .

df1=59,7 2,5×1,5= 55,95

df2=240,3 2,5×1,5= 236,55

3.1.10.

, (30)

, =376 [4,.61]

α , [4,.63] α = 1,14;

Kυ , , 4.3. [4,.62] Kυ = 1,04;

.

3.1.11. .

sF2=YF2×Yb× KFb×KFn×2×2/(d2b2×m)£[sF]2, (31)

sF1=sF2(Y F1/YF2) £[sF]1, (32)

sF1,2 , /2;

YF1,2 , (zv1=z1/cos3b1 ; zv2=z2/cos3b2), 0, ;

Yb - , ;

KFb - ,

KFb =1;

KFn - , , KFn=1,11.

YF1,2 4.4 [4,.64] , zv1,2= z1,2/cos3β.

zv2=157/cos311,48= 166,8

YF2=3,62

zv1=39/cos311,48= 41,44

YF1=3,69

Yb=1-β0/140 (33)

Yb=1-11,48/140=0,918

sF2=2×174950×3,62×1×0,918×1,11/(240,3×30×1,5) = 119,4

sF2= 119,4£200,85 /2

sF1=119,4(3,69/3,62) = 121,7 £[sF]2

sF1= 121,7 £ 213,21/2

.

3.

45 45
207 195
[σ], /2 439,6 418
[σF], /2 213,21 200,85
b, 34 30
d, 59,7 240,3

df,

55,95 236,55

d,

62,7 243,3
z 39 157

σ, /2

412,7

σF, /2

121,7 119,4

w,

150
b, 11,48

u

4,03
m 1,5

3.2. 

3.2.1.

3.2 [4,.50] : 45 . 1=207, 2=195.

:

[σ.]1=1,8 207+67= 439,6 /2

[σ.]2=1,8 195+67= 418 /2

[σ]=418 /2.

:

[σ F]1=1,03207 = 213,21 /2

[σ F]2=1,03195 = 200,85 /2

3.2.2.

6636-69 aω=240 .

3.2.3.

3.2.4.

9563-60 m = 2,5 .


3.2.5.

3.2.6.

z2=189 34= 155

3.2.7. .

Du=(|4,56-4,5|)/4,5100%=1,33% <4%

3.2.8. .

3.2.9.

d1=2,5×34/cos10,14=86,4

d2=2,5×155/cos10,14=393,6 .

da1=86,4+2×2,5= 91,4

da2=393,6+2×2,5= 398,6

df1=86,4 2,5×2,5= 80,15

df2=393,6 2,5×2,5= 387,35

3.2.10.

α , [4,.63] α = 1,11;

Kυ , , 4.3. [4,.62] Kυ = 1,01;

.

3.2.11. .

KFn - , , KFn=1,04.

YF1,2 4.4 [4,.64] , zv1,2= z1,2/cos3β.

zv2=155/cos310,14= 162,5

YF2=3,62

zv1=34/cos310,14= 35,6

YF1=3,75

Yb=1-10,14/140=0,928

sF2=2×748540×3,62×1×0,928×1,04/(393,6×48×2,5) = 110,7

sF2= 110,7£200,85 /2

sF1=110,7(3,75/3,62) = 114,7 £[sF]2

sF1= 114,7 £ 213,21/2

.

4.

45 45
207 195
[σ], /2 439,6 418
[σF], /2 213,21 200,85
b, 52 48
d, 86,4 393,6

df,

80,15 387,35

d,

91,4 398,6
z 34 155

σ, /2

405,6

σF, /2

114,7 110,7

w,

240
b, 10,14

u

4,56
m 2,5

3.3. 

.

, (34)

.

, (35)

a - , a = 20.

.

, (36)

, .

.

(37)

.

, (38)

.

, (39)

a - , a = 20.

.

, (40)

, .

.

(41)

5.

1 2

Ft,

1456,1 1456,1 3803,6 3803,6

Fr,

540,8 540,8 1406,4 1406,4

Fa,

295,7 295,7 680,3 680,3

F,

339,1 - - 1368

2.

2.

3.4. 

3.4.1.

.

45.

=200

, (42)

d1 , ;

[τ] , [τ]=10/2.

l1=(1,21,5)d1, (43)

l1 , .

l1=1,228,4 = 34,08

7.1. [4, .109] t = 2,2 .

d2=d1+2t, (44)

d2 , .

l2=1,5d2 , (45)

l2 .

d2 = 28,4+22,2 = 32,8

l2 = 1,532,8= 49,2

d3=d2+3,2r, (46)

r , 7.1.[4, .109], r = 2,5 ;

d3 , .

d3 = 32,8+3,22,5 = 40,8

(l3) .

d4=d2,

l4=B

d4 , ;

l4 , ;

, .

d2 d4 d=35.

d1, l1, l2,d3 Ra40.

d1=28

l1=34

l2=50

d3=40

.

45.

=200

[τ] , [τ]=15/2.

7.1. [4, .109] t = 2,5 .

d2 = 38,8+22,5 = 43,8

7.1.[4, .109] r = 3 .

d3 = 43,8+3,23 = 53,4

(l3) .

d4=d2,

l2=l4=B

d4 , ;

l4 , ;

, .

d2 d4 d=45.

d1, d3 Ra40.

d1=38

d3=53

.

45.

=200

, (47)

d1 , ;

[τ] , [τ] = 20 /2.

l1=(1,01,5)d1, (48)

l1 , .

l1 = 1,257,2 = 68,64

t = 3

d2=d1+2t, (49)

d2 , .

l2=1,25d2, (50)

l2 .

d2=57,2+23=63,2

l2=1,2563,2=79

d3=d2+3,2r, (51)

r , , r=3,5;

d3 , .

d3=63,2+3,23,5=74,4

(l3) .

d4=d2,

l4=B,

d4 , ;

l4 , ;

, .

d2 d4 d=65 .

d1, l1, l2,d3 Ra40.

d1=56

l1=71

l2=80

d3=75


6.

d1,

28 - 56

l1,

34 - 71

d2= d4,

35 45 65

l2,

50 25 80

d3,

40 53 75

3.4.2. .

( 1). , , , l.

l = L B, (52)

L , ;

, .

.

L = 195,75 , =17 .

L = 211,75 , =25 .

L = 227,75 , =33 .

l = 195,75 17 = 178,75

l = 211,75 25 = 186,75

l = 227,75 33 = 194,75

.

l1 = 48,25 , l2 = 130,5

l1 = 52,25 , l2 = 65,75 , l3 = 68,75

l1 = 122 , l2 = 72,75

l .

.

l1 = 75,5

.

l2 = 134,5

3.

.

S = 0

-96,6

.

S = 0

- 444,2

.

SY = 0

.

S = 0

.

S = 0

.

S = 0

536,3 580,7 + 1456,1 339,1=0

4.

.

S = 0

.

SD = 0

.

SY = 0

.

S = 0

.

SD = 0

.

S = 0

2449 2810,7 + 1456,1 + 3803,6=0

5.

.

S = 0

.

S = 0

S = 0

162,1 1568,5 + 1406,4 =0

.

S = 0

.

S = 0

.

S = 0

2365,6 70 + 3803,6 1368=0

.

.

.

.

.

1 = 0; 2 = 0; 3 = − RA∙l1; 4 = 0; 3 = − R∙l2

3 = − 580,7∙48,25= −28,02 ; 3 =− 536,3∙130,5= −70

.

1 = 0; 4 = 0

2 = − R∙l1; 2 = − RD∙(l2 + l3)+ Fr12∙l2

3 = − R∙(l1 + l2)+ Fr21∙ l2; 3 = − RD∙l3;

2 = −874,4∙52,25= −45,7 ; 3 =−1072,8∙68,75= −73,76

2 = −1072,8∙(65,75 + 68,75)+1406,4∙65,75=−51,82

3 = −874,4∙(52,25 + 65,75)+540,8∙65,75=−67,62

.

1 = 0; 3 = 0; 2 = R∙l1; 4 = 0; 2 = − R∙l2

2 = 162,1∙122= 19,8 ; 2 =− 1568,5∙72,75= −114,1

.

.

1 = 0; 2 = F1l1; 3 = F1∙(l1+ l1)+R∙l1; 4 = 0;

2 = 339,1∙75,5=25,6

3 = 339,1∙(75,5+48,25)+580,7∙48,25=70

.

1 = 0; 2 = R∙l1; 3 = R ∙( l1+ l2)− Ft21∙ l2; 4 = 0;

2 = 2449∙52,25=127,96

3 =2449∙(52,25+65,75)−1456,1∙65,75=193,2

.

1 = 0; 2 = R∙l1; 3 = Rl− Ft22∙ l2; 4 = 0;

2 = 2365,6∙122=288,6

3 =2365,6∙194,75−3803,6∙72,75=184

.

.

.

.

2 3.

.

3 .

.

3 .

.

2 .

3.

4.

5.

. :

s ³ [s].

, s s:

, (53)

, ;

W , 3.

- ,

- .

.

.

3

/2

.

.

3

/2

.

.

3

/2

, t t:

, (54)

, ;

Wr , 3.

- ,

- .

.

.

3

/2

.

.

3

/2

.

.

3

/2

; (55)

, (56)

s t - , 11.2 [4,. 257], s=1,6 t=1,4;

d , 11.3 [4,. 258];

F , 11.4 [4,.258] F = 1,0;

, 11.5 [4,. 258] = 1,7.

.

.

.

.

.

.

; (57)

, (58)

s-1 t-1 , 3.2 [4,. 50] - s-1 = 260 /2.

t-10,58×s-1

t-1= 0,58×260 = 150,8 /2;

.

.

/2

/2

.

.

/2

/2

.

.

/2

/2

; (59)

(60)

.

.

.

.

.

.

(61)

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

: . . .

4. 

7.2 [4,.107] , .

, .

, .

, .

: 207

d= 35 ,

D=72 ,

B= 17 ,

r= 2 ,

r= 25,5

0r= 13,7

: 309

d= 45 ,

D=100 ,

B= 25 ,

r= 2,5 ,

r= 52,7

0r= 30,0

: 313

d= 65 ,

D= 140,

B= 33 ,

r= 3,5 ,

r= 92,3

0r= 56

r, , r, L10h, , Lh (Lh=37230 ), :

r ≤ r L10h ³ Lh

(62)

, (63)

R ,

w - ,

m =3 .

.

:

Ra1 = Ra2 = Fa

.

Ra1 = Ra2 = 295,7

Rr1 = RB; Rr2 = RA

Rr1 = 544,9

Rr2 = 731,1

6.

.

Ra1 = Ra2 = 680,3

Rr1 = RD; Rr2 = R

Rr1 = 3008,5

Rr2 = 2600,4

7. .

.

Ra1 = Ra2 = 680,3

Rr1 = R; Rr2 = R

Rr1 = 2371,1

Rr2 = 1570,1

8.

, :

(64)

, (65)

, 9.4 [4,.133] =1,4;

, 100 9.5 [4,.135] = 1,0;

, 9.1 [4,.129] =0,56;

V , V = 1.

.

.

Y Ra/Cor 9.2 [4,.131].

=0,2, Y=2,15.

.

.

.

=0,2, Y=2,1.

.

.

.

=0,175, Y=2,6.

.

18898,5 ≤ 25500

35465,3 ≤ 52700

.

21363,8 ≤ 92300

.

91460,5 ³ 37230

.

122156 ³ 37230

.

3002342 ³ 37230

r ≤ r L10h ³ Lh , , .

: . . .

5. 

().

0,3 12, 5 /.

s n. 10.29 [4,. 241] ---68.

0,40,8 1 . 4 .

:

, (66)

m ;

2,5 ≤ h ≤ 0,25×393,6 = 98,4

.

, 16´1,5.

, . , .

n < 2 /, -1.

6. 

.

(67)

.

(68)

.

l=(1,01,5)d (69)

l=1,553=79,5

.

d=0,3d

d=0,3×53=15,9

.

(70)

.

.

.

.

l=1,575=112,5

.

d=0,3×75=22,5

.

.

:

(71)

δ = 6

:

1.  : d1= M10; d0=11;

: l=(1215)d1 =1510 = 150 ;

=3d=310=30;

b=1,5δ=1,510=15; =1,210=12.

2.  , d2 = M8; d0=9;

l= (1215)d =158 =120 ;

1= 2,78 = 21,6;

b=1,5δ=1,58=12; 1= 0,58 = 4 .

3.  . 18 [4,.396] D1= 72 , D2= 100 , D3= 140 .

4.  .

5.  , d5=M6;

=2,76=16,2;

l=(1215)d=136=78;

=1,26=7,2; b2=1,56=9.

6.  , d=6 .

7.  d =3∙d = 3∙6 =18 .

7. 

, , . , :

, (72)

, 10.26[4,. 237] = 2;

1 , .

- .

125-28-I.1-28-II.2-3 21424-75.

.

(73)

, 33 ;

, 78 ;

z , 4;

d , d =14 .

(74)

, 28 .

.

56-I-56-II.2-3 5006-83.

.

(75)

, , =1,1;

b , b =10 ;

d , d =z∙m.

z , z=50;

m , m=2 ;

, =15 .

.

8. 

: - .

:

d = 28 , b = 8 , h = 7 , t1 = 4 , t2 = 3,3 , l = 22 .

:

d = 53 , b = 16 , h = 10 , t1 = 6 , t2 = 4,3 , l = 70 .

:

d = 75 , b = 20 , h = 12 , t1 = 7,5 , t2 = 4,9 , l = 100 .

:

d = 56 , b = 16 , h = 10 , t1 = 6 , t2 = 4,3 , l = 63 .

:

, (76)

Ft , ;

= (0,94×h t1)×l , 2;

l =l - b , ;

l ; b, h, t1 ;

[s] - , [s] = 190/2.

.

l = 22 8 = 14

= (0,94×7 4)×14 = 36,12 2

/2

.

l = 70 16 = 54

= (0,94×10 6)×54 = 183,6 2

/2

.

l = 100 20 = 80

= (0,94×12 7,5)×80 = 302,4 2

/2

.

l = 63 16 = 47

= (0,94×10 6)×47 = 159,8 2

/2

.

9. 

, , , 2, , . m, .

:

, (77)

j - , [4,. 263]

w j = 0,34;

r= 7300 /3 ;

V .

, (78)

L ;

;

.

3

:

(79)

/()

12.1 [4,. 261] .

u1 =4, u1 =4,5 m1 = 1,5, m2 = 2,5, = 748,54 ͷ - .=46 ͷ.

.

, .

1.  . ., . . 蠠 . . .: . .,1985.

2.  . ., . . . . . .: .. ,1990.

3.  . . . . .: 1984.

4.  .. . .: , 1991.


2011 , .